Mutual funds are a type of certified managed combined investment schemes that gathers money from many investors to buy securities. There is no such accurate definition of mutual funds, however the term is most commonly used for collective investment schemes that are regulated and available to the general public and open-ended in nature. Hedge funds are not considered as any type of mutual funds.
Mutual funds are identified by their principal investments. They are the 4th largest category of funds that are also known as money market funds, bond or fixed income funds, stock or equity funds and hybrid funds. Funds are also categorized as index based or actively managed.
In a mutual fund, investors pay the funds expenditure. There is some element of doubt in these expenses. A single mutual fund may give investors a choice of various combinations of these expenses by offering various different types of share combinations.
The fund manager is also known as the fund sponsor or fund management company. The buying and selling of the funds investments in accordance with the funds investment is the objective. A fund manager has to be a registered investment advisor. The same fund manager manages the funds and has the same brand name which is also known as a fund family or fund complex.
As long as mutual comply with requirements that are established in the internal revenue code, they will not be taxed on their income. Clearly, they must expand their investments, limit the ownership of voting securities, disperse most of their income to their investors annually and earn most of their income by investing in securities and currencies.
Mutual funds can pass taxable income to their investors every year. The type of income that they earn remains unchanged as it gets transferred to the shareholders. For e.g., mutual fund distributors of dividend income are described as dividend income by the investor. There is an exception: net losses that are incurred by a mutual fund are not distributed or passed through fund investors.
Mutual funds invest in various kinds of securities. The various types of securities that a particular fund may invest in are mentioned in the funds prospectus, which explain the funds investments objective, its approach and the permitted investments. The objective of the investment describes the kind of income that the fund is looking for. For e.g., a "capital appreciation" fund generally looks to earn most of its returns from the increase in prices of the securities it holds rather than from a dividend or the interest income. The approach of the investment describes the criteria that the fund manager may have used to select the investments for the fund.
The investment portfolio of a mutual funds investment is continuously monitored by the funds portfolio manager or managers who are either employed by the funds manager or the sponsor.
Advantages of Mutual funds are:
1) Increase in diversification.
2) Liquidity on a daily basis.
3) Professional investment management.
4) Capacity to participate in investments that may be available only for larger investors.
5) Convenience as well as service.
6) Government oversight.
7) Easier comparison
There are different types of Mutual funds as well. Here are some of them.
In open-end mutual funds, one must be willing to buy back their shares from investors at the end of every business day at the net asset value that is calculated for that day. Most of the open-end funds also sell shares to the public on every business day. These shares are also priced at a particular net asset value. A professional investment manager will oversee the portfolio, while buying or selling securities whichever is appropriate. The total investment in the funds will be variably based on share buying, share redemptions and fluctuation in the market variation. There are also no legal limits on the number of shares that can be issued.
Close-end funds generally issue shares to the public just once, when they are created via an initial public offering. These shares are then listed for trading on a stock exchange. Investors, who dont wish any longer to invest in the funds, cannot sell their shares back to the funds. Instead, they must sell their shares to another investor in the market as the price they may receive may be hugely different from its net asset value. It may be at a premium to net asset value (higher than the net asset value) or more commonly at a lesser to net asset value (lower than the net asset value). A professional investment manager will oversee the portfolio, in buying or selling securities whichever is appropriate.
Unit Investment Trusts
UIT or Unit Investment Trusts issue shares to the public just once when they are created. The investors in turn can cash in on the shares directly with the fund or they may also sell their shares in the market. UITs do not have any professional investment managers. Their portfolio of securities is established by the creation of the UITs and does not undergo any changes. UITs in general have a limited life span, which is limited at their creation.
Fixed Deposit aka term deposit is an instrument by which one can deposit his/her savings for a prescribed period of time with a bank. When the period of deposit elapses, the depositor is entitled to the interest on the deposited amount. In some cases, the rate of interest on fixed deposits can be as high as 9.5%!
How to do it?
All you got to do is deposit your savings in a bank account of your preference and watch your money grow over time. Do remember to check with multiple sources regarding the various options available. There are a wide range of fixed deposit products available to suit a wide range of investor preferences. So choose the one that matches closely with your investment goals.
The Bankers View:
For banks, fixed deposits (or term deposits) represent a loan arrangement. In simple terms, the money deposited through such investments shall earn a said amount as interest, as per the existing norms and guidelines as set by the banking regulatory authority. The rate of interest on your fixed deposit is determined by many factors such as the location of deposit, the duration for which the amount is deposited as also the currency involved for making the deposit.
The Investors Take:
For starters, a fixed deposit is not a normal deposit that you do at your bank and then withdraw it as and when you please. But, it is a deposit that cannot be withdrawn in the specified period. Generally, these types of deposits are made for duration of 5 years. During this time, the amount remains in your bank account and is prohibited to be withdrawn for any reason whatsoever. Non-profit organizations, corporate entities and individuals alike, who wish to keep aside a stipulated sum for a particular period of time, most often than not, find that such deposits are the easiest way in attaining their objective. The icing on the cake is their money will earn a rate of interest that is shielded by any fluctuations in the interest rates that governs other type of investments. Such deposits are a good (if not the best) way to gain a return on investment which is a tad higher than a conventional savings account.
Deposits that are made "in the name of one person, as trustee for another" are branded as "trust deposits."
Trust deposits are made for three basic reasons:
1) Pose for the disposition of a domain after demise sans the use of a will or administration,
2) Hide from others info of financial standing, or
3) Escalate deposits where a prescribed limit is set upon single deposits.
Lastly, fixed deposits offer investors a relatively safe avenue for parking their funds, albeit at the risk of earning a slightly lower return on investment. At the end of the day, it is up-to the individual investor to decide for themselves whether they wish to pursue a high return-high risk approach or a relatively lower but largely safe investment approach.
Types of Companies offering Fixed Deposits
Features and Benefits
Company Fixed Deposits offer comparatively higher returns than banks.
Choose the best tenure for you from a wide range as per your convenience.
You can choose how frequently you want to receive your interest payments:
Company Fixed Deposits are non transferable that means there is no fear of FD receipt being stolen. In case it falls into wrong hands, it cannot be misused.
Premature encashment of deposit is available any time subject to payment of prescribed penalty.
Diversify Risk- The deposits should be spread over a large number of companies engaged in different industries. This way, youll be able to diversify your risk among various industries/companies.
Wide Choices- Many companies operating in the Company Deposit market. This will help you decide whether to renew or reshuffle the deposit.
Attractive rates as applicable from time to time.
A bond is a debt security, in which the authorized issuer – company, financial institution, or Government, offers regular or fixed payment of interest in return for the money borrowed by the said issuer. It is for a certain period of time.
How do bonds work?
Tax Free Bonds are the bonds on which the interest received is fully exempted from tax under Section 10. However, the principal amount invested in these bonds cannot be claimed as a deduction from the total income of the bondholder for the purpose of payment of income tax.
These bonds are an investment avenue open to ‘resident individuals’ and ‘Hindu Undivided Families (HUFs)’. However, NRIs are not permitted to invest.
A Joint holding is permitted for resident individuals and investments can be done on behalf of minors (as father/mother/legal guardian).
The 7.75% Savings (Taxable) Bonds, 2018 are low-risk investments and the application for these bonds can be received in the designated branches of agency banks and SHCIL (StockHolding Corporation of India Limited).
54EC bonds, or capital gains bonds, are one of the best way to save long-term capital gain tax. 54EC bonds are specifically meant for investors earning long-term capital gains and would like tax exemption on these gains. Tax deduction is available under section 54EC of the Income Tax Act. 54EC bonds do not allow any tax exemption on short-term capital gains tax. Invest in 54EC bonds to get benefits of tax deduction. The maximum limit for investing in 54EC bonds is Rs. 50,00,000. The eligible bonds under Section 54EC are REC (Rural Electrification CorporationLtd), PFC (Power Finance Corporation Ltd) and NHAI (National Highways Authority of India) and IRFC (Indian Railways Finance Corporation Limited).
Investors want investment options that manage liquidity and risks while offering substantial returns. Debentures are long-term financial instruments issued by a company for specified tenure with a promise to pay fixed interest to the investor. Debentures are of two types, namely convertible debentures and non-convertible debentures (NCD).Non-convertible debentures (NCD) are those which cannot be converted into shares or equities. NCD interest rates depend on
the company issuing the NCD. NCD investment can be held by individuals, banking companies, primary dealers other corporate
bodies registered or incorporated in India and unincorporated bodies, Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) and Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs). Invest in secured NCD to get multiple investment benefits
Any Indian resident (not a minor) or a Hindu undivided family or can invest. Infrastructure bonds are good for people who need a fixed income. They offer a decent rate of interest and tax benefits. The maturity of these bonds is often between 10 to 15 years with an option to buy-back after a lock-in of 5 years.
Senior Citizen Savings Scheme (SCSS)
Investment under this scheme qualifies for the benefit of Section 80C of the Income Tax Act, 1961 from 1.4.2007
Public Provident Fund Account (PPF )
The PPF account can be opened in a Post Office or Bank which is Double handed and above.
National Savings Certificates (NSC)
In case of NSC VIII , transfer of certificates from one person to another can be done only once from date of issue to date of maturity.
At the time of transfer of Certificates from one person to another, old certificates will not be discharged. Name of old holder shall be rounded and name of new holder shall be written on the old certificate and on the purchase application (in case of non CBS Post offices) under dated signatures of the authorized Postmaster along with his designation stamp and date stamp of Post office.
Sukanya Samriddhi Accounts
A bonus of 5% on principal amount is admissible on maturity in respect of MIS accounts opened on or after 8.12.07 and up to 30.11.2011. No bonus is payable on the deposits made on or after 1.12.2011.